Wednesday, October 27, 2010

By popular old standby

Planning on making a chicken noodle casserole for dinner tonight, which is, basically, just a twist on the old favorite "tuna noodle casserole" kids hate tuna fish. But in talking about making this, I got a request to provide the recipe...and this is the best place to provide it. The hardest thing, is for a cook to provide a recipe for which there is no "hard and fast" written down recipe...but I'm going to go for it.

Chicken Noodle Casserole

3/4 to 1 bag of wide egg noodles
1 can cream of chicken soup
1/4-1/2 c. sour cream
about one half of the soup can of milk
8 oz (2 c.) of grated cheddar cheese
1 large can of chicken breast meat, or 2 c. of finely chopped chicken (from chicken you may have leftover)
1/2 c. frozen peas
any additional vegetables you may have left over in fridge (recommendations spinach; well drained, chopped chives, chopped cilantro, corn, etc) totalling about 1/2 to 3/4 c.
1/2 c. finely chopped celery
1/2 c. finely chopped purple onion
1/2-3/4 c. bread crumbs (regular or panko)
salt and pepper to taste/preference
about 1/2 tsp garlic powder

Cook noodles according to package directions. Place into casserole dish (spray with non-stick spray). Add can of soup, one half of the soup can of milk, the sour cream, half of the cheese, the chicken, and the vegetables (celery, onion, peas and any extras you've chosen). Mix well. Top with remaining cheese and bread crumbs. Bake at 350 for about 30 minutes, until golden brown and "bubbly". Serve with warm bread and a nice green salad.

By the way, if YOUR kids LIKE Tuna, this recipe works just as well using that, or even canned salmon (or both instances)

Today's food quote: "I refuse to believe that trading recipes is silly. Tuna fish casserole is at least as real as corporate stock" Barbara Harrison

Monday, October 25, 2010

Butternut autumn favorite

One of my favorite things, when the weather starts to get cooler (by the way...WILL the weather ever start to get cooler here? I wonder....90 today...are you KIDDING me?)is soup and my (f)all-time favorite is Butternut Squash Soup. Since the first time I sampled it at Wolfgang Puck's I've been hooked...and although they now sell this delectable item in cans, I'm always looking for recipes to make it myself. Wolfgang's own recipe is ANYTHING but simple, and many other ones truly lack in the "ease" department, but I think I've FINALLY hit on one that may just be both tasty AND simple. For you other autumn vegetable lovers out there, (and in the FERVENT hopes that the weather turns more AUTUMNAL soon), here's a nice recipe for

Simplest Butternut Squash Soup

For the soup
1 butternut squash (about 3 lbs.)
2 slender, or 1 1/2 larger leeks, white parts only, split lengthwise, washed (leeks can be REALLY sandy) and cut into 1 inch long pieces
3 c. WHOLE milk
3 c. water
salt and freshly ground pepper
freshly grated nutmeg

Peel the squash. Remove the seeds and string, then cut into 1 to 2 inch chunks. Toss into a large Dutch oven or soup pot. Add the leeks, milk, and water; salt generously and bring to a boil. Lower heat to a simmer and cook 25 to 35 minutes, or until squash is soft enough to mash when pressed lightly with the back of a spoon.

Using a blender or food processor, puree the soup in batches until it's very smooth (an "immersion blender" would work really well for this, provided you do not use non-stick cookware---otherwise it might scratch it). Thin to your desired consistency (butternut squash soup should be quite thick) with milk and water. Season with salt, pepper and nutmeg. Reheat if necessary (this soup should be served really hot)

Optional garnishes:
1 tart (Granny Smith or MacIntosh) apple, peeled, cored, and cut into tiny dice
1/3 c. chopped toasted hazelnuts, walnuts or pecans
1/2 c. creme fraiche or heavy cream (drizzle)

to "spice" up the flavor (and add a type of "thickener") you might want to add about 1/4 c. of canned pumpkin (NOT pumpkin pie filling) to the soup at the end, mixing in well. This will add a flavor "twist" and help to thicken it if it happens to be on the thin side.

Autumn is (as I've said before) my very favorite time of year. I'm fervently hoping that, at some point, we GET an autumn here in Florida this year....right now I'm stuck in "summer" whilst looking at autumn and winter decorations. Not an easy task.

Today's food quote: "To feel safe and warm on a cold, wet night all you really need is soup" Laurie Colwin

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

For my family........:)

My original recipe planned for today's blog is just going to have to wait. Today I'm going to post a recipe that I am certain a few members of my family are going to be excited to find. We are, most of us, addicted to TGI Friday's "Green Bean Fries". Not necessarily a very HEALTHY dish, but one we love, to say the least. I had found them, frozen, at the big box store BJ's, but still I'd like to be able to make them from "scratch" and am happy to say that after much poking around, have achieved...SUCCESS!!

So...dedicated to my sister, Sandy, cousin, Sherry, and daughters, Cassondra and we have....Green Bean Fries!!

Green Bean Fries

for the dip:
1/2 c. ranch dressing
1/2 c. peeled, seeded, chopped cucumbers
1 T. horseradish, drained
1 T. milk
1 tsp. distilled white vinegar
2 tsp wasabi powder (found in the spice aisle or with the Asian foods)
pinch of cayenne pepper
Kosher salt

for the beans:
2 c. low sodium chicken broth
1/2 pound green beans, trimmed
1 large egg
1/2 c. milk
1 c. instant flour (such as "Wondra")
1 c. breadcrumbs
1/4 tsp onion powder
1/8 tsp. garlic powder
Pinch of cayenne pepper
ground black pepper
Peanut of vegetable oil for frying

Make the dip. Puree the dressing, cucumber, horseradish, milk, vinegar, wasabi powder, cayenne powder, and salt to taste in a blender until smooth. Cover and refrigerate until ready to serve.
Prepare the beans: Fill a large bowl with ice water. Bring the broth to a boil in a saucepan over high heat. Add the green beans and cook until tender, about 5 minutes. Remove beans with a slotted spoon and transfer to the ice water to stop the cooking. Let cool in the water, then drain and pat dry.
Whisk the egg and milk in a shallow bowl. Put 1/2 c. flour in another shallow bowl. Combine the breadcrumbs, the remaining 1/2 c. flour, the onion and garlic powders, cayenne, and salt and pepper to taste in another bowl.
Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Toss the green beans in the flour and shake off the excess. One at a time dip the beans in the egg mixture, dredge in the breadcrumbs mixture and lay on the prepared baking sheet. Freeze until the coating has set...about 30 minutes.
Heat 3 inches of oil in a deep pot over medium heat until a deep fry thermometer reads 350 degrees. Fry the green beans in batches until golden brown; 1 to 2 minutes. Transfer the beans with tongs or a skimmer to a rack or paper towels to drain. Serve with the dip.

Today's food quote: "Hell is where no one is waiting and nothing is cooking" Barlozzo

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

See ya later, tater..

Hey, sorry about the length between posts, weekends are packed around here and this past one was no exception. In fact, although Dan and I had a FANTASTIC lunch at Disney on Friday (and really, rarely is food at Disney "bad") we really didn't cook the rest of the weekend.

So I'm back at it again, today have a pot of bean soup bubbling on the stove from some leftover ham that I DID cook over the weekend but we didn't get around to eating as a "meal" lol. It made a wonderful ham and egg breakfast on Sunday, though, and is currently enhancing one of my favorite homemade soups.

I love to utilize the autumn vegetables that are out right now, and was REALLY excited to see Kale at the grocery store today, it being one of my favorite greens to cook and eat. Fried or grilled pork chops served on a bed of kale....superb.....give it a try.

I got today's recipe from a Publix (supermarket) "Greenwise" magazine. If you're not familiar with the free magazines that Publix has in the front of their stores, you definitely need to do so. They have one on cooking naturally and organically and it's called "Greenwise", also one on wines and their pairings with great recipes for types of snacks to make and serve with them and it's called "Grape" and then there's one that has awesome ideas for kids, cooking with kids, and crafts and...for the life of me the title is escaping me right now but I think it's called "Family"...or something like that. lol. But definitely check those out, they're at the front of the store, in the entrance area on a rack that usually also holds the current weekly sale flyer.

Today's recipe uses the sweet potato, which is available all year but the production and availability really "ramps up" during autumn. This is one a bit off beat, it's for a dessert bar, but it's really tasty.

Sweet Potato Pecan Bars

3 T. butter or margarine, softened
2 T. sugar
2/3 graham cracker crumbs
2 T. finely chopped toasted pecans
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 c. mashed sweet potatoes (cooking in the oven, about 5-7 minutes for 2 average sweet potatoes is the best, and easiest idea---then you can mash them with either a fork or hand mixer)
1/4 c. dairy sour cream
1/4 c. sugar
1 1/2 tsps. all purpose flour
3/4 tsp pumpkin pie spice
1/3 c. milk
1/2 c. chopped toasted pecans

Preheat oven to 350. In a small mixing bowl stir together the butter and the 2 T. sugar. Stir in the cracker crumbs and the 2 T. finely chopped pecans until combined. Press onto bottom of a lightly greased 8x8x2 baking pan. Bake in a preheated oven for 10 minutes or until lightly browned. Set aside to cool.

For filling, in a medium bowl stir together egg, mashed sweet potatoes and sour cream. Stir in the 1/4 c. sugar, the flour and the pumpkin pie spice until smooth. Stir in the milk. Pour sweet potato mixture evenly over prebaked crust. Bake at 350 for about 25 minutes or until a knife inserted near center comes out clean. Immediately sprinkle with remaining chopped nuts, pressing lightly into filling. Cool completely in pan on a wire rack, chill. Cut into bars. Cover and store in refrigerator up to 2 days or store in an airtight container in the freezer for up to 1 month. Makes about 16 bars.

If you have someone with the proverbial "sweet tooth" in your house this would be great just lightly "drizzled" with some royal icing--which you can make by just mixing some confectioner's sugar and some milk...whisk until smooth and then lightly pour over. Heaven.

Today's food quote: "Eat the bread, drink the wine...and let life be what it is" Old Tuscan saying.

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Halloween Treats, no tricks!!

So I'm going to take a day off from helping you choose dinner ideas and holiday (Thanksgiving and Christmas) ideas to talk about a holiday I don't particularly care for, or get all that "excited" about, but seems to generate a lot of interest on the food front.

Today I saw the most adorable idea for Halloween that it inspired me to devote my entire blog to the holiday today. This is, most likely, the only time I'm going to mention Halloween because, as I said, I'm not all that fond of it.

This particular person had taken Nutter Butter know the ones, they're shaped like peanuts...and after melting white chocolate (or the almond bark you can find in the stores right now) she dipped the cookies into the chocolate and lay them out on a sheet of wax paper. She then, while the chocolate was still "soft" placed mini chocolate chips towards the top of one end for "eyes" and they bacame....."Boo Babies". They were the CUTEST things I had EVER seen...and even though my kids are well into their teens I cannot WAIT to make some!!

Other ideas for fun treats are: wrapping facial tissue around a "Tootie Pop", securing it with a string and then drawing eyes on the "pop" to make ghosts. Also, if you're able to get your hands on the see through plastic gloves they use in food preparation, you can place a red gummy into each fingertip and then stuff the glove with popcorn....these make "Witches Hands" and kids love those as well. Speaking of popcorn, my kids love my homemade "caramel corn" and it is SUPER easy to make...all you do pop a large bowl of popcorn (I use an air popper, but you can pop it in a conventional popcorn popper or on the stove). Let the popcorn cool slightly. Melt one stick of butter and once it has melted add "about" 1/4 c. of brown sugar. Stir to dissolve and let it come to a quick boil....this should be a "syrup-y" like texture but if not....add a bit more brown sugar. Once it has come to a boil, remove from heat. Let stand for about 1 minute and then pour over the bowl of popcorn. Toss to completely cover. At Halloween I also like to sometimes mix in peanuts, candy corn, M&M's or even pretzels.

My kids love Rice Krispie treats (and so does their mother!!) and at Halloween time I like to put candy corn into them, and/or use the holiday Rice Krispies that they've come out with.

Other good ideas are melting the aforementioned almond bark, dipping the first 2/3's of a pretzel rod into it, rolling that into holiday colored "sprinkles" and letting set on wax paper until set and hardened. These are called "Fairy Wands".

If you are SUPER creative and adventurous, you can buy the "snowball" dessert cakes, and cover them with white fondant (available in cake decorating sections of many stores, Michaels carries it). Cover the "snowball" with a small square of the fondant, letting it "puddle" around the bottom. Add snips of black licorice for eyes and you have yet another "ghostie".

Anyone who has other ideas, bring them on!! If you have little ones (or even the older kids, sometimes) Halloween can be very exciting and since classrooms have a lot of parties it's great to have a lot of ideas in your repertoire.

Today's food quote: "Once in a young lifetime one should be allowed to have as much sweetness as one can possibly want and hold. Happy Halloween" Judith Olney

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Party pleaser, hostess gift shoe-in, great snack idea!

So we talked about the peanut butter bread, and how it'd be great not only for the kids for snack time, but also as a great hostess gift. We're headed into that holiday season, when we not only have to think about "gift giving on a budget" but also hostess gifts, party menus, things for those unexpected guests at holiday time and just "stuff" for the kids to snack on. So here's another "crowd pleaser" and a way to save some money on those Hickory Farm cheese balls everyone loves so much.

White Cheddar Cheese Log

1 8 oz cream cheese
4 oz aged white cheddar, shredded to yield about 1 cup (finely shredded)
1/4 c. butter
1 T. half and half
1 tsp Worcestershire sauce
1/3 c. finely chopped pecans; toasted (or you can buy them already toasted)
1/4 c. finely chopped green onions

2/3 c. chopped parsley, green onions, or pecans

Leave your cream cheese and butter out about 30 minutes (room temperature). Mix cream cheese, cheddar, and butter. Add half & half and Worcestershire sauce. beat with an electric mixer until fluffy. Stir in 1/3 c. pecans, 1/4 c. green onions. Cover and freeze for 15-20 minutes or just until mixture is easy to handle. Shape into a log. Wrap in saran wrap and refrigerate. To serve, let stand about 15 minutes, then roll in your choice of the toppings.

At a party, this would be great served with some crackers (of course), some fruit and a nice crisp Chardonnay. Maybe a couple other types of cheese as well, for a variety. But this cheese log is MUCH cheaper to make than one you may buy ready made and will TASTE a lot fresher.

It's great to have something fun and festive to pull out of the fridge in the event of unexpected guests...and it's nice to make something yourself for gifts, or have little special items like this at your holiday parties. This is my favorite time of year, it's fun to try new recipes, have friends and family over, host holiday parties (and attend them, taking along a hostess gift makes you a favorite guest!). Enjoy this time, it goes by so quickly. If you have holiday recipes you'd like to share, please send them to me.

Food quote: Salt is mentioned in the Bible more times than any other spice or food.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Peanut.....Peanut Butter....YUM!

So yesterday, as my daughter Bella put it, I was on a "baking binge". I made several baked goods for the girls to have for breakfasts, lunches and snacks. My buttermilk biscuits did not turn out so well, so if anyone out there has a foolproof buttermilk biscuit recipe, PLEASE pass it on. Martha Stewart let me down. LOL

But I digress. Anyway, I'm currently on a hunt for breads to make besides the banana bread or Amish Friendship bread (my Amish bread recipe does not use a ROCKS). I think they make great snack foods, but also, at holiday time they make wonderful, inexpensive gifts from the heart (and hey, in this age of economizing who doesn't want or need to save some money??!!) So on my quest for new and fun quick breads I came across a recipe for "Peanut Butter Bread". This is a Paula Deen (she's my idol) recipe from one of her older cookbooks. After testing this recipe, I've made just a couple "alterations" (sorry, Paula) and I think that you'll be more than happy with the finished product. Keep in mind that this is a dense bread, not really all that "sweet", but it tastes great spread with jam, or Nutella (a well-loved staple in our house) fact, when spread with Nutella you have a snack that hints at the all time "fav" a Reese's cup. This recipe is super easy, go ahead and give it a try for a great snack or breakfast treat.

Peanut Butter Bread

2 c. all purpose flour
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 tsp salt
4 tsp. baking powder
1 1/2 c. milk
1/2 c. peanut butter (if you want a "crunchy" texture, use the crunchy style peanut butter!!)

Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Combine dry ingredients. Add milk and peanut butter. Pour into a greased loaf pan that has been sprayed with cooking spray. Bake for about 50 minutes.

Recommended cooking tool: since we discussed giving loaves of quick breads as holiday gifts (another good idea is giving them as hostess gifts) I would recommend investing in small loaf pans. A normal recipe for a quick bread will yield you about two small loaf pans. I was lucky enough to find a set of four at a yard sale, and have used them many times over. I have even seen them sold as one LARGE pan that is divided into four small loaf "sections" and that would serve the same purpose, and probably be less expensive than buying four separate ones.

Today's food quote: "Don't take cookin' too seriously, honey. Life gets hard soon as we walk out or doors; cookin' should not be hard." Paula Deen

Monday, October 11, 2010

Give your dinner an exotic twist tonight

I love it when people send me recipes, but this recipe is from my sister and so it makes it even more special. I gave it a try and it IS might require a trip down your local supermarket spice aisle if some of these spices aren't in your normal repertoire but that aisle is one of my personal favorites anyway, and all of these spices are SO versatile that you'll be able to use them in many more dishes you might want to make for your family and friends. The recipe as it stands, makes enough for a nice group; I cut it in half for our family.

So here, for an exotic twist on dinner tonight is

Pakistani Chicken

2 cut up chickens
1/2 c butter or oil
6 sliced onions
2 tsp salt
1 tsp crushed cloves
1/2 tsp ginger
1/2 tsp black pepper
1/2 tsp red pepper
10 crushed cloves of garlic
6 cardamon pods

Melt butter (unless you're using oil) and add spices. Pour over chicken to marinate for a couple hours. (Honestly, I find a good heavy duty ziploc back INVALUABLE for marinating meat in, just pop everything into the bag, and then put into the can reach in periodically and "squidge" it around with your hands to make sure it's mixed well)

Bake at 350, covered with foil. (My sister's instructions are "until done" but if you're a novice and want to know how LONG.....chicken needs to be cooked to an internal temperature of at least 165 degrees...and that's going to be about 45 minutes or so for this dish). You can remove the foil towards the end (maybe the last 10 or 15 minutes) and it will brown and develop a nice, crispy crust.

Serve this with rice, and I recommend flatbread (pita or roti, whichever you can find). You will love the uniqueness of the flavor...I think it's always nice to try out types of cuisine you may be otherwise unfamiliar with or have never tried.

Recommended cooking tool: If you use a lot of rice you may want to invest in a rice cooker. I love mine, you can "set it and forget it" It cooks the rice and then keeps it warm until you're ready to use it. All you need to do is "fluff" it.

Today's food quote: "When you wake up in the morning, Pooh,' said Piglet at last, 'what's the first thing you say to yourself?' 'What's for breakfast?' said Pooh. 'What do you say, Piglet?' 'I say, I wonder what's going to happen exciting today?' said Piglet. Pooh nodded thoughtfully. 'It's the same thing,' he said."
A. A. Milne, 'The House at Pooh Corner'

Saturday, October 2, 2010

Have a Magical Day..

We're a "Disney family", everyone who knows us knows that. Disney has given us many opportunities (besides the obvious ones of paying our bills) and many memories. Today my husband and I are celebrating our 19th wedding anniversary (albeit about a week early) and we visited Epcot on our honeymoon. At this time of year, Epcot now has the "Food and Wine Festival", an extravaganza in World Showcase that no one should miss (it was not yet taking place when we got married). Each country (and a few others added in as well) offer samples of their best foods, wines and beers. I've already shared in this blog on of my F&W favorites, the Cheddar Cheese Soup from Canada (it's a favorite of our entire family, really) Who knew, 19 years ago, that Disney would one day be where Dan works, and where myself, Karis, Grant and our Amy have been employed as well. We owe Disney a lot, and for that reason I'm dedicating my blog to them today, sharing a recipe that is "true Disney"; fun, innovative and magical. "Have a magical day" (one of many "Disney-isms") and make "Tinkerbell's Twinkie Tiramisu" for dinner tonight.

"Tinkerbell's Twinkie Tiramisu"

12 Twinkies, sliced 1/2 inch thick
Espresso syrup (recipe follows)
Mascarpone filling (recipe follows)
Cocoa powder, chocolate chips for garnish

Place half the Twinkie slices in a single layer in the bottom of a shallow 2 quart baking dish or gratin dish. Drizzle with half of the espresso syrup. Spread with half of the mascarpone filling. Repeat with remaining Twinkies, syrup and filling. Smooth top with a metal spatula (resists sticking). Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for up to 24 hours before serving. Just before serving sift cocoa to lightly dust the top of the tiramisu. Sprinkle with chocolate chips

Espresso Syrup
1/3 c. water
1/2 c. sugar
2/3 c. strong-brewed espresso coffee
1/4 c. Italian or domestic brandy, optional
Combine water and sugar in a small saucepan
Bring to a simmer, stirring occasionally to dissolve sugar
Remove from heat, cool and add coffee and brandy

Mascarpone Filling
1 1/2 c. heavy cream
1/3 c. sugar
2 tsp vanilla extract
1 pound mascarpone cheese, softened (I've been able to FINALLY find mascarpone cheese at Publix, in the deli, and also at Sam's Club)
Whip cream with sugar and vanilla until soft peaks form. Fold cream into softened mascarpone.

Today's food quote: "Disney food....I have just met you and I LOVE you!!" unknown WDW guest

Friday, October 1, 2010

The Classie "B-L-T" a pasta????

My GOODNESS the last week or so has been hectic for me!! Between job interviews (nothing yet...I think my age is working against me), a wedding, two highschool girls going to homecoming and shopping for "necessities", two puppies under age 1, etc, etc, etc, I have NOT had much free time to experiment with new recipes. But, I am HAPPY to say I am BACK in the kitchen and "rarin' to go"!! Between finding time to bake a fresh batch of dog biscuit treats and cooking for the family, I have been enjoying having more free time back in the kitchen. Fall is FINALLY in the air down here in Florida, and before we all know it the holidays will be right around the corner. So....I am going to concentrate on "easy meals", holiday special treats, and baking and cooking for gift giving. Any and all contributions will be GREATLY appreciated, so let's have some fun.

This recipe is based on the simple, homey "B-L-T" sandwich. It's a "b-l-t" but in a pasta form. Fun, different and filling. Great with a salad for a nice quick meal.

Bacon, Lettuce and Tomato Bucatini (with garlic bread crumbs)

(for the garlic bread crumbs)
1 clove garlic
1 c. Italian bread cubes
1 tsp olive oil
Salt to taste

(for the pasta)
2 strips bacon, diced
1 c. halved grape tomatoes
1/2 tsp sugar
1/2 c. thinly sliced leeks (always clean your leeks carefully and rinse WELL--leeks have a tendency to be a "sandy" vegetable, but their mild taste is SO worth the work!!)
1/4 c. dry white wine (chardonnay, chenin blanc, or chablis)
1/2 c. chicken broth
1 tsp. red wine vinegar
1/4 tsp red pepper flakes
4 ox. dry bucatini pasta or spaghetti
1 c. fresh spinach leaves
1/4 tsp. minced fresh thyme

Bring a pot of salted water to a boil for the pasta.

Mince garlic for the bread crumbs in a food processor. Add cubed bread and process until coarse.

Heat oil in a nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add crumbs and toast until golden, 3-4 minutes, stirring often. Season with salt and set aside

Cook bacon for the pasta in a large, nonstick skillet over medium heat until crisp (cooking suggestion: whenever a recipe calls for bacon, cooked crisp, my method of choice is to snip the bacon with my kitchen shears directly into the pan and fry accordingly. cuts out that "crumbling" phase later on). Transfer from pan to a paper towel and pour out all but 1 T. of drippings.

Carmelize tomatoes and sugar in drippings over medium heat. Cook until tomatoes begin to brown, about 5 minutes. Add leeks, saute until wilted, about 3-4 minutes.

Deglaze skillet with wine, simmer, until liquid is nearly evaporated. Add broth, vinegar and pepper flakes. Simmer until liquid is reduced by a third, about 5 minutes.

Cook bucatini in boiling water according to package directions. Add the spinach, thyme and cooked bacon to the tomato mixture. Trasnfer cooked pasta from cooking water to the skillet using tongs. toss to coat; season with salt. Divid pasta among plates and sprinkle with bread crumbs. Serves 2-3

Today's food quote: "My kitchen is a mystical place, a kind of temple for me. It is a place where the surfaces seem to have significance, where the sounds and odors carry meaning that transfers from the past and bridges to the future." Pearl Bailey